(Timeline) History of Bulgaria

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Milka
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(Timeline) History of Bulgaria

Postby Milka » Mon Aug 20, 2007 9:11 pm

My curiosity about Bulgaria’s past got me reading ‘A Concise History of Bulgaria’ by R J Crampton. I started putting together a timeline for my own use (listing key dates in British history and listing key dates in Bulgarian history alongside) but have since thought it would be a shame not to share it with other members. So as not to swamp a thread with pages of dates, my original timeline has been turned into a blog. The blog covers dates from 6000BC to 2007AD, includes some maps and lists links to the web sites from which much of it is summarised.

What follows is a shorter version of the blog.

Firstly, a very brief summary to get you familiar with place names and empires mentioned in the timeline.

Bulgarian national boundaries as they are today only came about at the end of WW2. The earliest, pre-historical records refer to the SE Balkans as Thrace. The Thracian civilisation gave way to first the Greek Empire, then the Roman Empire, and then, following a division in the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) before finally succumbing to the Ottoman Empire (Islamic Turks). Around the time of the end of the Roman and start of the Byzantine Empires, invading Bulgar people settled in the Balkans and created the first Bulgarian empire with a territory covering much of what is today Serbia, Macedonia and Romania. Ottoman invasion into the Balkans restricted the state of Bulgaria to the area south of the Danube and north of the Balkan mountain range. The area south of the Balkan mountain range became know as Eastern Romalia. The two states were not unified as an independent Bulgaria until the late 19th Centuary.

Timeline of key dates (UK non-bold; Bulgaria bold):

3300-1200BC First stone circles and henges built
2500BC Thracian civilisations established in SE Balkan peninsular
1200-800BC Celtic cultures and tribal kingdoms start to emerge
600BC Thrace colonised by Greeks
100BC Thrace becomes part of the Roman Empire

54BC Julius Caeser conquers England
AD449 Angles & Saxons arrive in SE Britain
500 Slavic tribes begin to settle Thrace and Moesia
AD597 Start of conversion from Paganism to Christianity
600 Nomadic Asiatic Bulgars invade and become ruling elite
680 First Bulgarian Empire established
AD789 First recorded Viking attack
864 Christianity introduced
893 Bulgarian Empire at its Zenith; Bulgarian declared as the language of the Bulgarian Church. Development of the Cyrillic alphabet.
1018 Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire

1066 Battle of Hastings
1185 Successful revolt against Byzantine Empire, second Bulgarian Empire established
1189 Richard I (the Lionheart) crowned King of England; goes to fight in the Crusades.
1337 Hundred Years War, England v. France starts
1389 Ottoman Turks invade; Bulgaria becomes part of the Ottoman Empire
1455 War of the Roses starts
1477 William Caxton publishes first printed book in England
1534 Henry VIII becomes head of the English church, seperating Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church
1605 Gunpowder Plot
1620 Pilgrim Fathers sail to America in ‘Mayflower’
1666 Great Fire of London
1787 First convicts sail to Australia
1789 French revolution and the storming of the Bastille
1804-14 Bulgarian volunteers help Serbs in their wars for independence from the Ottoman Empire
1805 Nelson and the Battle of Trafalgar
1806 First book published in Bulgarian
1815 Napoleon defeated at the Battle of Waterloo
1801 Act of Union – Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Ireland formally joined to become the United Kingdom
1820’s Bulgarians help Greeks in their war for independence
1837 Queen Victoria on the throne
1850’s Revolutionary movement in Bulgaria for national independence grows
1854 France & Britian declare war on Russia, start of the Crimean War (France, Britain and Turks fearing the expansion of Russia in the Balkans)
1861 Population of Britian 23m
1877 Russians invade Balkans to protect Bulgarian Christians. Start of the Russio-Turkish war
1878 Bulgaria becomes an autonomous Principality of the Ottoman Empire with a Christian prince (Alexander of Battenburg). Eastern Rumalia (Southern Bulgaria) becomes an autonomous unit within the Ottoman Empire.
Start of emigration of Muslim Turks back to Turkey and the decline of indiginous industries.
1885 Easter Rumalia incorporated into the autonomous Bulgarian principality.
1908 Independent Kingdom of Bulgaria established.
Population of Bulgaria 4m

1911 Population of Britain 42m
1914-18 World War I; Britain declares war on Germany
1914-16 Bulgaria initially declares its neutrality but following offensives against Serbia, Britain, Russia and Italy declare war on Bulgaria. Bulgaria signs military pact with Germany.
1917 Communist revolution in Russia
1918 Woman win the right to vote in Britain
1918 Bulgaria surrenders to the Allies
1939-45 World War II; Britain declares was on Germany following the invasion of Poland.
1939-44 Bulgaria initially declares its neutrality in World War II before declaring war on Greece, Yugoslavia, Britain and the USA. When USSR declares war on Bulgaria, Bulgaria withdraws from the war.
1944 Women win the right to vote in Bulgaria
1946 Communists win government elections and take control; the monarchy is abolished
1947 Formal peace treaty with USSR signed. People’s Republic of Bulgaria established.
1949 NATO created.
1954 Forced assimilation drive against the 1m Turks living in Bulgaria. 310,000 forcibly expelled
1955 Warsaw Pact signed by the eight Communist Bloc countries.
1961 Berlin wall built
1969 Georgi Markov (writer and journalist) flees Bulgaria, settles in England (dies 1978 from poisoned umbrella tip)
1973 Britain joins the EEC
1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident
1989 Fall of the Berlin War
1989 Communist Party leadership replaced by pro-democracy supporters; Population in Bulgaria 9m.
2004 Bulgaria joins NATO.
2007 Bulgaria joins EEC.

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Postby fey » Mon Aug 20, 2007 9:35 pm

Great stuff Milka...the history of Bulgaria is like a novel of bad luck and chance. Interesting that the Russions invaded the Balkans to protect the Bulgarian Christians, and then persecuted them severely under Communism. Unlucky they got the Ottoman Empire and the Turks. What grieves me about the Turks, whenever they were overun and loosing a battle..they torched the cities and towns they were leaving. So much beautiful architecture and history lain to waste.

I do not think there has been a period in our history when free speech and freedom has been banned...maybe under Cromwell. This makes me sad that we run our country down all the time..all the freedom we have to make things so much better. Which we squander and take for granted.

The history of Bulgaria is very humbling..conquered, overrun, sold out and humiliated. Yet, the people have soldiered on, and retained a dignity and pride. I really hope the EU gives them more than another invasion of foreigners..plundering their property and land hoping to make a killing out of them. Cheap, cheap, cheap. May, they get decent wages, higher standard of living and freedom of life, at last, in their beautiful country.

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Postby scot47 » Tue Aug 21, 2007 5:07 am

Well done for looking at the History of Bulgaria. Nice to see some taking an interest in the language, history and culture of Bulgaria !

Lots of missing information in the timeline.
Treaty of San Stefano and Treaty of Berlin (Role of Disraeli)
IMRO and Ilinden
The Balkan Wars ?
Effects of the Defeat in WWI & Treaty of Nish (the Bulgarian Versailles)
Alexander Stamboliski
1923 Uprising and civil conflict in the 20's and 30's
Bombing of Sveta Nedelya Church
Georgi Dimitrov
Tsar Boris III
Bombing of Sofia 1943-1944 BY RAF and USAF
9.9.1944 (Deveti Septemvri)
People's Republic

I am not sure where you get the figure for Turks who left in the 1950's. Crampton gives a much lower figure. You neglect to mention the much larger exodus in 1988.('Golyamata Exkursiya').
Last edited by scot47 on Tue Mar 24, 2009 3:17 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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Postby Toma » Tue Aug 21, 2007 8:07 am

Very good post!
Many of the important events are here...Some are not - how Scot said - about the SanStefano, BalkanWars, Ilinden, The Rebel's movement, April uprising...During the First and the Second BG empire - war of Khan Tervel and the Byzantine Empire against the Arabs, which stoped them from the full European invasion in year 718..
This battle halted Muslim expansion into Europe from the East for almost 700 years...

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_before_Constantinople

About the defeating of the IV Crusadres from Tsar Kaloyan and capturing the Emperor Baldwin from the Bulgarians :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Adrianople_(1205)

About the ancient schools with the present days rangs of universities Preslav, TurnovGrad, Ochrid...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preslav_Literary_School
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohrid_Literary_School


The prosper of Bulgarian (and slavic) culture and education during the end of the First and the whole Seond BG Empires...
Its not true that the fisrt book in BG was published in 1806 ...It was the first printed book, but books in BG have been written during and after the First Bulgarian empire - espesially after year 855 ...
Its not true that the whole history of BG is humiliating and so on..Bulgaria has a glory history - many empires and barbarians try to conquered BG, but only two times they suceeded - in 1118 (by Bizantine Empire) and in 1393 by the Ottomans...
Most of the other part of the BG history , Bulgarians were the rulers of the whole Balkans , and not only the Balkans - but in some periods we had common boundaries with the Frank empire...
I dont know (if I make a mistake - somene to correct me ) other country (not to mention empire) who is existing on a about 200 km from the main city of the so biggest empire like it was Bizantine Empire, and not only to succeed existing, but to be a real threat for this empire...
Unfortunatelly, after the falling of the Seconf BG empire in 1393, the Ottomans distoryed all the culture, the schools, most of the churches and the monasteries, the whole aristocracy were slaughtered, most of the books were burned out...And this conitnue for 500 years...
After that are comming the fights of the Bulgarians for unification of our lands after the humiliating Berlin conference in 1878..
The prosperity of Bulgaria till the Balkans wars...And after that the 2 national catastrophies - BalkanWars and WWI where the Bulgarian soldier creates miracles of courage and boldness, where in 4 wars (Balkans 1 and 2, WWI and WWII) no one of our enemies succeed to capture BG army flag, but our museums are full of such flags of our enemies..But even that the BG politics wasted all ...
And after that - the Communism..
Even that, we succeed to stand up and to fight for better future of our homeland...

These are only the first things that are comming up in my mind, but if you want to learn more - there are a lot of books and web sites about BG history..
Regards,
Toma

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Postby carriemc » Tue Aug 21, 2007 8:45 am

Really interesting post & something I am becoming more & more interested in finding out more about.

Can anybody recommend any readable books (or websites) about Bulgarian history?

Caroline

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Postby Toma » Tue Aug 21, 2007 9:30 am

carriemc wrote:Really interesting post & something I am becoming more & more interested in finding out more about.

Can anybody recommend any readable books (or websites) about Bulgarian history?

Caroline


One good begining with many in-line links :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgaria#History

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Postby Toma » Tue Aug 21, 2007 9:38 am

Interesting (you must watching this with sound) :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-9N9IhCAiu8

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Postby carriemc » Tue Aug 21, 2007 10:03 am

Thanks very much for that!

Caroline

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Postby scot47 » Tue Aug 21, 2007 10:46 am

You should watch the film produced as a trilogy in the 1970's and 1980's 'Khan Asparukh'. There is a version with American soundtrack.

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Postby scot47 » Tue Aug 21, 2007 11:53 am

And thinking about Modern Bulgarian History what about Bulgaria's refusal to hand Bulgarian Jews over to the Reich ? The sizeable Bulgarian Jewish population survived.

There is more to Bulgarian History than at first sight.

And as "Toma" points out there is a long history of Bulgaria before the Turkish occupation from 1393.


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